Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide - a coenzyme central to metabolism

Found in all living cells as an essential element of the biological processes that make life possible. 

NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide.

  • helping turn nutrients into energy – a key player in metabolism
  • a supporting molecule for proteins that regulate other biological activities
  • responsible for regulating oxidative stress and circadian rhythms
  • maintains the health of the DNA

NAD+ and aging

The level of NAD + markedly declines with age, creating an energy deficit that decreases the body’s ability to retain youthful function.

By age 50, the level of NAD+ in a typical adult drops to half; by age 80, the NAD+ level drops to only 1% to 10% expressed in youth

NAD+ is required for the functioning of the de-acetylase
(Sirtuin) protein that contributes to longevity

NAD+ activates longevity factors - maintains the telomer length which in turn prolongs life.

NAD+ promotes DNA repair

Accumulated DNA damage contributes to the aging process and can result in specific lifespan shortening diseases like cancer.
Replenishing NAD+ within the cells can restore the body's ability of DNA self repair, preventing cell death under stress.

NAD+ regulates immune and inflammatory pathways

 Intracellular NAD+ is vital for youthful cellular energy. Adequate NAD+ levels ensure cell energy supply and promotes cell regeneration, and maintains defences against infections and autoimmune diseases.

NAD+ improves chromosomal stability and reduces cancer risk

NAD+ improves chromosome stability and may slow down cellular aging and lower the risk of cancer.

With Age NAD+ declines

The first study showing this decline was in 2012, it examined the human skin and established that the coenzyme as vital to aging

“This study reports for the first time a link between oxidative stress and PARP activity, aging, and a decline in NAD+ levels, in
human tissue. The observed correlation between NAD+ levels and aging adds weight to the idea that NAD+ may play a role in cell senescence and longevity and not simply as an electron carrier.”

 In 2015, another human study furthered evidenced the importance of NAD+ demonstrating a decline in levels within the human brain.

 “The results of this study provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the cellular NAD concentrations and redox state in the
brains of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, an age-dependent increase of intracellular NADH and age-dependent reductions in NAD (+), total NAD contents, and NAD (+)/NADH redox potential of the healthy human brain were revealed in this study. The overall findings not only provide direct evidence of declined mitochondrial functions and altered NAD homeostasis that accompanies the normal aging process but also, elucidates the merits and potentials of this new NAD assay for noninvasively studying the intracellular NAD metabolism and redox state in normal and diseased human brain or other organs in situ.”

NAD+ Essential

Not only is NAD+ a key co-enzyme that every cell of our
bodies depends on to fuel all the basic functions, it plays a vital role in
communicating between the cell nucleus and the Mitochondria to power all activity
within our cells.

 Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between
falling NAD+ levels and aging demonstrating how decreasing NAD+ impairs the
cell's ability to produce energy, leading to aging and disease - perhaps even
the key factor in why we age.


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